The Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques have been used, in different engineering areas, in special to solve optimization problems. Like in other fields, construction engineering has also benefited from the use of these techniques, especially by means of the application of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In this paper, the application of this technique in two different construction engineering problems is presented. The first one deals with the analysis of the shear strength of high and normal strength reinforced concrete beams with or without shear reinforcement. The second application refers to the study of the bond mechanism between longitudinal steel and the surrounding concrete, a key point in the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures. Moreover, the possibility to improve existing concrete code formulations, by means of the use of ANNs, is carefully studied for both cases. Finally, the authors analyse other possible applications that could be developed using AI techniques.