Nature has proved to be the best testing system, where we can analyze the effectiveness of any method of solving problems. It provides one of the most complex problems to be resolved: the survival. Analyzing how the species behave to achieve that survival, soft computing methods try to mimic this behavior to provide meaningful solutions to diverse problems. This chapter offers an introduction the fundamentals that the different soft computing techniques translate from Nature. It includes an approach of the brain behavior (Artificial Neural Networks) or the evolution ideas taken from Darwin’ laws (Evolutionary Computation algorithms).